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Do you know all the spinning processes?

TIME:2023/5/15 16:37:00

       The content of this article is an introduction to spinning technology. We share the content of this article with you conscientiously and responsibly based on the principle of integrity!

       1. Ring spinning

       At present, the most commonly used spinning method in the market is that the sliver or roving after drawing is introduced through the ring ring wire ring, the bobbin winding speed is faster than the wire ring, and the cotton yarn is twisted into yarn. It is widely used in various short fiber spinning projects. The yarn has a compact structure and high strength, and is suitable for various products such as thread making, weaving and knitting.

       Ring-spinning (combing) process: carding → carding → pre-drawing → sliver winding → combing → drawing → roving → spinning → winding

       Ring spinning (general carding) process: carding → carding → first drawing → second drawing → roving → spinning → winding

       2. Twistless spinning

       A spinning method in which the fibers in the fiber strip are bonded to each other by using an adhesive. After the roving is drawn by the drafting device, the sliver is sent to the twisting roller, which is in contact with the thin layer of adhesive from the groove box on the roller. The fiber strip is conveyed forward by several rotating small rollers and rollers. One of the small rollers also performs axial reciprocating motion at the same time to roll the fiber strip into a circular section and make each fiber evenly contact with the adhesive. The round fiber strips are dried by the heater, and the fibers adhere to each other to form yarn. The spinning speed can be 2-4 times higher than that of conventional spinning methods, and the yarn can be used for weaving.

       3. Self-twist spinning

       An unconventional spinning method. The two fiber strips are thinned by the drafting device, output by the front roller and the twist roller, and closed at the yarn guide hook. In addition to rotation, the twist roller rotates rapidly and axially to rotate the sliver, so that the sliver before and after the twist roller can be twisted back in the opposite direction. The morphological characteristics of self-twist yarn are that the adjacent yarn segments are alternately twisted back in positive and negative directions, and the alternate part is untwisted back.

       This spinning method is specially used for multi-strand yarn, such as wool spinning or wool-like chemical fiber products. High-quality self-twist yarn can be directly used for weft knitting, but warps for woven use must use twisted self-twist yarn to improve strength.

       4. Centrifugal spinning

       A continuous spinning method of twisting and winding by using high-speed centrifugal cans (cups) and lifting guide tubes. The roving is continuously output from the front roller after passing through the drafting device, and then enters the high-speed rotating cylindrical centrifugal tank through the yarn guide hook and the yarn guide tube. Under the centrifugal force, the sliver tightly sticks to the inner wall of the tank and rotates with the tank, so that the sliver between the lower end of the yarn guide tube and the front roller is subject to twisting action, and the rotation speed of the sliver in the lower horizontal direction of the yarn guide tube lags behind the centrifugal tank, resulting in winding.

The yarn guide tube rises and falls according to a certain rule to form a cross winding yarn cake. When the winding reaches a certain length, the front roller stops outputting the fiber strip, the yarn guide tube rises and exits the centrifuge can, and the empty bobbin rapidly drops into the centrifuge can. The yarn head hooks the yarn hook at the lower part of the bobbin, so that the yarn on the yarn cake unwinds onto the bobbin. After the unwinding, take off the full tube. Compared with ring spinning, the power consumption is large, the yarn return is large, and the broken ends are difficult to handle. The yarn is rewound on the bobbin, and the front roller needs to stop rotating, which affects the productivity. At present, few people use it.

       5. Cap spinning

       Spinning method of twisting and winding sliver with spindle cap and bobbin. Used for wool and hemp spinning. The spindle cap of the bell type is fixed on the top of the spindle, and the bobbin is looped on the spindle. After being drawn by the drafting device, the roving is continuously output from the front roller, and wound on the bobbin by the guide hook and the lower edge of the spindle cap. When the bobbin rotates, it drives the sliver to rotate around the spindle cap, and the sliver is continuously twisted back. The friction resistance of the spindle cap to the rotating sliver makes the sliver continuously wound on the bobbin. The bobbin is lifted and lowered along with the lifting plate according to a certain rule, and the yarn is wound into a certain package form. The spinning tension of the cap spinning method is small and the breakage is less.

       6. Walking spinning

       A spinning method for periodically implementing the three functions of sliver drafting, twisting and winding.

       A working cycle is divided into four stages: the first stage: spinning. The drafting device drafts the roving and sends out the fiber sliver. The spindle carriage leaves the drafting device and moves outward. The sliver is slightly drawn, and the spindle rotates to twist the yarn.

       The second stage: twisting. The drafting device and spindle carriage stop and the spindle rotates continuously to complete the twisting of the spinning yarn.

       The third stage: withdrawal. The drafting device and the spindle carriage continue to be stationary, the spindle rotates slowly in the opposite direction during twisting, unwinds the yarn loop from the spindle tip, the upper forming hook descends, guides the unwinded yarn loop, the lower forming hook rises, and tightens the yarn.

       The fourth stage: coiling. The drafting device continues to stop, and the spindle carriage moves quickly towards the drafting device. The spindle rotates in the direction of twisting, reels the yarn, the upper forming hook guides the yarn to make the winding tight and form a certain package, and the lower forming hook tightens the yarn, which has been replaced by ring spinning.

       7. Free end spinning

       It is a new spinning method that loosens the fiber strip into single fiber, condenses the single fiber into free-end fiber strip, and then twists it into yarn. The condensed fiber strip rotates with the twist of the yarn and is in the form of free end. Because the fed fiber strip and the free end fiber strip are broken, it is also called "broken spinning". There are different ways to condense single fibers into free-end fiber strips, including rotor spinning or rotor spinning, electrostatic spinning, vortex spinning and dust cage (friction) spinning, among which the application of rotor spinning is the most common. At present, most people in free-end spinning refer to rotor spinning. Compared with conventional ring spinning, it has the following advantages: twisting and winding are separated, the total draft on the rotor spinning machine is much larger than that on the ring spinning machine, and twisting can be carried out at high speed; After twisting, the sliver is directly wound into a package, which has large package capacity and simple process; Reduce the labor intensity of workers and improve the working environment.

       8. Rotor spinning

       Also known as "rotor spinning", one of the effective free-end spinning methods, the core is a spinning cup, the fiber sliver is input from the feeding roller and the cotton feeding board, and is loose into a single fiber by the high-speed small roller (carding roller). The negative air pressure in the spinning cup makes the single fiber enter the spinning cup through the conveying pipeline along with the make-up air. Under the centrifugal force of the high-speed rotation of the cup, the single fiber tightly sticks to the condensation groove at the maximum inner diameter of the rotor along the smooth inner wall, forming a circular fiber strip. When the head is connected with the joint, the yarn tail is put into the yarn guide tube along with the make-up air flow, and also sticks to the condensation groove due to the centrifugal force of the rotor, so that the yarn tail is connected with the fiber strip. When the yarn guide is pulled out of the spinning cup, the fiber strip leaves the condensation trough along with the yarn tail, and is twisted into yarn by the high rotation of the spinning cup at the same time. The yarn is pulled out by the output roller through the anti-twist disc and the yarn guide tube, and the groove tube drives the bobbin to be wound into a package.

       The process of rotor spinning: cleaning → carding → first drawing → second drawing → rotor spinning

       9. Electrospinning

       One of the free-end spinning methods. It consists of fiber loosening, conveying, electrostatic condensation, free end twisting, package winding and other technological processes. There are two methods for fiber loosening and conveying:

       (1) The roller draft is used as the opening mechanism, and the electrostatic field is used for fiber transportation.

       (2) The take-in roller is used as the opening mechanism to transport cotton fiber by air flow.

       The electrospun yarn is suitable for making quilt cloth, furniture cloth, knitted jacquard tablecloth, curtain cloth and other products; Various blended yarn, slubby yarn and core-spun yarn can be spun, and fabrics with unique fabric style can also be made.

       10. Vortex spinning

       One of the free-end spinning methods. The fiber strip is input between the feeding roller and the feeding plate, and is loosened into fiber by the high-speed small roller, and then enters the static eddy current twisting pipe tangential with the air flow through the conveying pipe. The lower part of the vortex twisting tube is connected with the air negative pressure source, and the nozzle is tangential to the inner wall of the twisting tube. The upward-moving vortex part of the nozzle is weakened by the negative pressure source of the lower air in the tube, so that the fibers tangential into the twisting tube are spiral along the tube wall, condensed into a rotating fiber ring in a stable eddy current field. When the joint is made, the yarn guide tail passes through the yarn guide tube with the supplementary air flow, and is connected with the fiber ring under the centrifugal force.

       The mechanism and operation are simple, the spinning speed is extremely high, the fiber loss is less, and the twisting efficiency is low. It is suitable for spinning chemical fiber pure or blended medium-coarse yarn, and has good effect as fleece yarn and core-spun yarn.

       11. Air-jet spinning

       An unconventional spinning method. After the draft is carried out by jet air flow, when the fiber sliver is falsely twisted, some free fibers on the end of the fiber sliver are wrapped around the periphery of the fiber sliver for spinning. There are two types of single nozzle and double nozzle, the latter has good and stable spinning quality. The fiber sliver is thinned by the drafting device, output from the front roller, and wound into a package by the grooved drum through the first nozzle, the second nozzle, the yarn guide hook, and the yarn guide roller. The vortex rotation direction of the two nozzles is opposite, and the vortex intensity of the second nozzle is greater than that of the first nozzle, so that the twist back on the yarn between the two nozzles can overcome the torque and resistance imposed by the first nozzle on the yarn, and transmit it to the front roller jaw. The free end of the twisted fiber around the fiber strip is affected by the first nozzle and wrapped on the fiber strip in the opposite direction. Some of the twisted yarn core fibers are twisted backward through the nozzle, while the wrapped fibers are wrapped more tightly during the reverse untwisting process.

       Compared with ring spinning, it has the advantages of high output, large package and short process. Suitable for spinning all kinds of staple and filament core-spun yarn, and processing of laminated medium and long chemical fiber yarn. Murata of Japan is an expert in jet spinning. Its products include MJS, MVS and RJS. Air-jet spinning is similar to air-jet spinning, with hard feel and good hairiness.

       Air-jet spinning process: cleaning → carding → pre-drawing → sliver merging → combing → first drawing → second drawing → third drawing → air-jet spinning

       12. Friction spinning

       It is a method of producing twist yarn by using the friction effect of the machine surface on the sliver surface. More mature dust cage spinning.

       13. Cage spinning

       Also known as (Drave spinning) friction spinning, which is generally referred to as friction spinning, is a free-end spinning method. The principle is that the single fiber released from the fiber strip by the roller is blown to the surface of a rotary dust cage by the air flow. The space between a pair of dust cages is very small, and the rotation speed and rotation direction are the same. When the fiber layer that rotates with the dust cage reaches the triangle area of the two dust cages, it is twisted and twisted into yarn by the surface of the two dust cages, and guided by the yarn guide hook, and then directly wound into a package by the winding mechanism. It is suitable for spinning coarse and special yarn, and can also be spun with filament core-spun yarn. It is usually used to weave thick fabric or various blankets.

       This article mainly describes the spinning process, hoping to help you. Welcome to comment on this article.